Loly: 1 Vulnhub Walkthrough
In this article, we are going to solve a Capture the Flag (CTF) challenge of LOLY:1 from Vulnhub and the URL for this CTF is https://vulnhub.com/entry/loly-1,538/. This CTF is posted by SunSCR Team and aimed for Beginners, so let’s get started…
Table of Contents
- Dirb for Directory Listing and discovering WordPress site
- Running wpscan to find vulnerabilities
- Running wpscan to brute force password
- Uploading a php web shell in zip format
- Running the netcat listener
- Exploring the wp-config.php file
- Searching Ubuntu related exploits
- Exploiting Ubuntu
We have to set up our LAB first using a Bridge Network either in VMWare or Virtual Box (As it supports both). Then we will have to identify the target IP address by using the following netdiscover command:
netdiscover -r 192.168.0.1/24
The IP Address discovered by the above-mentioned command is 192.168.0.180. We discovered the IP Address of our vulnerable machine and now this is the time to run and scan using nmap command:
nmap -A 192.168.0.180
The image above shows that as a result of nmap port 80 is open and running nginx server, which we will explore and enumerate further.
We will browse the site now to see how the interface feels and what is available there.
As we can see in the image above, the nginx server is running and the site is hosted. Now we will run the dirb command to find the existing and/or hidden Web objects.
From image above we can see that this is a WordPress site and we can also see the wp-admin path. As we know the WordPress and its related plugins are prone to vulnerability so we will focus on this part to find out any low hanging fruits.
Upon browsing the site, we observed that the page is not responding as it is supposed to respond, possibly because of domain name mapping.
Hence, we need to add the entry in /etc/hosts file as shown in the image below. This entry will not only browse the page in an efficient way but will also help us to run wpscan on the next screen.
Now, it’s time to run the wpscan to find more vulnerabilities in this WordPress site by using the following command:
wpscan --url http://loly.lc/wordpress --enumerate u
To find out the login names of users on WordPress website, we will use the parameter –enumerate u at the end of the command, as shown in the following image:
After running the wpscan we found the username which is loly, the same can be seen in the image below:
Now, the next stage is to brute force the username loly with our Kali Linux rockyou.txt file to find the password by using the following wpscan command:
wpscan --url http://loly.lc/wordpress -U loly -P /usr/share/wordlists/rockyou.txt
Here, -U can be used for file and single user or both
Eureka!!! We found the password for loly, as shown in the image below:
Here comes the exciting part, EXPLOITATION!!! It’s time to upload the PHP reverse shell by logging into wordpress site by using the loly/fernando credentials which we discovered earlier. Make sure that first, we need to upload the reverse shell as zip format.
Now, access the PHP reverse shell payload by browsing the site as can be seen in the image below but before that, we have to open a netcat listener as well for reverse connection.
As mentioned above, we need to create a netcat listener first by using the below command to get the shell
nc -lvp 1234
Alright!!! So we got the reverse shell, now it’s time to use the python one-liner so we have a clear view of our terminal
Now, further exploring the directory structure of our victim machine, we found the wp-config.php file which will help us a lot in solving the rest of this CTF. By the way, the wp-config.php file is one of the core WordPress files which contains the information about database, name, host (typically localhost), username, and password.
As you can see that we managed to see the password lolyisabeautifulgirl by viewing the wp-config.php file.
So, we got the password, now we have to see what this password belongs to. To find out the users, we will list the users by running the following command
By running the above command yields the username, which is our favorite, loly
Here comes the trickier part, PRIVILEGE ESCALATION. First, we will log in by username loly and the password we discovered earlier lolyisabeautifulgirl and run the following command afterward:
The lsb_release command displays LSB (Linux Standard Base) information about specific Linux distribution, including version number, release codename, and distributor ID.
Next, we will run the uname command to know about the Linux kernel version and some other information so we should have enough evidence about the system for Privilege Escalation.
As we know that Ubuntu 4.4.0 is the Linux Image version being used from the screenshot above, our next step is to find the exploit related to this version by using the command below
seachsploit ubuntu 4.4.0
The image below shows the exploits that are available for this particular Linux version and our command used to copy the exploit under the root directory. We will run the python server to host our exploit copied earlier by using the command below:
python -m SimpleHTTPServer
Now, switch back to our victim machine and run the following command from tmp folder to save the exploit hosted on our Kali machine.
Run the following command to compile the exploit we copied earlier.
gcc 45010.c -o shell
We will use the chmod command to make the file readable, writable, and executable.
chmod 777 shell
The id command below revealed the real and effective user and group IDs and we can see that we are running the system as root as per the below image.
Now, cd to the root folder and see if there is any root.txt available, which is correct in our case. By using the command cat root.txt we can see our final flag just like it is shown in the image below:
Author: Mukarram Ali is a Risk Specialist with an Insurance Company based in Canada. Can be contacted on Linkedin