Comprehensive Guide on Sniffing
The Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) is a communication protocol. It is used for discovering the link layer address associated with a given Internet layer address, a critical function in the Internet protocol suite. ARP was defined by RFC 826 in 1982 and is Internet Standard STD 37. ARP is also the name of the program for manipulating these addresses in most operating systems.
ARP is used for mapping a network address (e.g. an IPv4 address) to a physical address like a MAC address. For more details visit here.
- Kali Linux Machine
- Windows Machine
- Local Area Network
- EtterCap tool
- VM running Metasploitable
- Wireshark (Protocol Analyzer)
- XArp tool
- FTP Client
- Putty Client
ARP Protocol Process
Address Resolution Protocol is in many ways similar to a domain name service (DNS). As DNS resolves known domain names to an unknown IP address, similarly an ARP resolves known IP addresses to unknown MAC addresses. As shown below in the given image
If we observe by the above image; IP address 192.168.1.102, wants to communicate to IP address 192.168.101, but does not know its physical (MAC) address. An ARP request is broadcasted to all systems within that network, including IP X.X.X.100, X.X.X.101, and X.X.X.103. When IP address X.X.X.101 receives the message, it replies back via uni-cast with an ARP reply. This response contains the physical (MAC) address of BB-BB-BB-BB-BB-BB as shown above, this ARP reply information is then placed in the ARP cache and held there for a short duration, to reduce the amount of ARP traffic on the network, The ARP cache stores the IP, MAC, and a timer for each entry. The timer’s duration may vary depending upon the Operating system in use, i.e., Windows operating system may store the ARP cache information for 2 minutes compared to a Linux machine which may retain it for 15 minutes or so.
Let us now begin with exploiting the ARP protocol to our advantage!!!
Scenario: Let us take the below scenario, where we will use 2 windows host machines Representing Host A and Host B as Victim and Kali Linux Host C used to target the victims. In the following image, you can see attacker has lunch arp poisoning attack which has poisoned the arp table by adding attacker Mac address with both Host’s IP: A & B.
Let’s Begin the ARP Poisoning Attack
The First step is to clear the ARP Cache of both the host by typing following command in command prompt arp -d for Host A, then Ping the Host A for the reply, now type command arp -a, this will show you the physical (MAC) address of the Host A Machine.
Similarly, let us do the same activity on the other systems which is Host B
Start Sniffing with Ettercap
Let us now start to exploit both Host A and Host B, from Host C machine, which is our Kali Linux, start sniffing with Ettercap tool as shown in the below image on Kali.
Go to Sniff and select Unified sniffing
Select the Network interface as appropriate, in this case, it is eth0, click on OK
Now go to the Hosts Tab and Select Scan for Hosts as shown below to scan the connected system in a local network.
You will get the host list of all the scan hosts as shown below, let us now select our Targets from the host list X.X.X.101 and X.X.X.102, now add both the targets one by one by clicking on the tab Add to Target 1 and 2 respectively, from the given image we can see that both the targets are now added to our list.
Now go to MitM (Man in the middle) and select ARP Poisoning. A Dialog box will appear for optional parameters.
Check the box “Sniff remote connection” and click OK
Go to start tab and click on start sniffing to target the Host A and B added.
Now let us go to our Kali machine and open the terminal, let us now type command ifconfig to determine our IP address and physical (MAC) address, in our case it is 00:0c:29:5b:8e:18 as highlighted in the given image
Since we have started the arp poisoning attack on both the victim machine X.X.X.101 and 102 from our Kali machine, if we go to any host and type arp -a on the command prompt, you will clearly see that the physical (MAC) address of the victim machine has changed to the physical (MAC) address of the Kali machine, as shown above, Physical (MAC) address of both the IP X.X.X.102 and X.X.X.107 are same, which means that all the traffic from host X.X.X.102 is passing through Kali machine X.X.X.107
Demonstrate MITM with Wireshark
Let us now Open Wireshark on our Kali machine and analyze the packets, let us filter the packets by typing the following command ICMP && (eth.sec = = 00:0c:29:5b:8e:18 || eth.dst == 00:0c:29:5b:8e:18), here in the command eth.sec means (Ethernet source) and eth.dst means (Ethernet destination), the MAC address are common in both source and destination which is the physical MAC address of our Kali machine, what we see is the source IP X.X.X.102 and destination X.X.X.101 are getting captured by the Kali machine which has a Physical (MAC) address 00:0c:29:5b:8e:18, hence proving successful sniffing of the victim machine.
Combining DNS Spoofing with sniffing
Let us now exploit both of our victim machines with DNS Spoofing attack
From your Kali machine go to the path: /root/etc/ettercap/etter.dns, open the file and remove any content if available, after then type the value * A (your Kali Linux IP address) as shown below and save the file.
Next step is to go to the ettercap tool and select plugins and click on manage the plugins as shown below:
Now select dns_spoof plug-in, once selected you will see (*) sign on the said plug-in.
Now if from the victim machine we type the command ping www.google.com, you will observe that the reply is getting received from IP X.X.X.107 which is the IP for our Kali machine, which means that the Kali machine has become the DNS server for the victim machine.
Let us now add one more plug-in the same way we added dns_spoofing plug-in, this time we will use remote browser plug-in as shown in the image below. Once this plug-in gets added, you can capture all the browser activity performed by the victim on his browser including user name and passwords.
Capturing NTLM passwords
Open Kali terminal and type msfconsole, once the console starts to type: search http_ntlm, now type: use auxiliary/server/capture/http_ntlm as shown in the below image:
This module attempts to quietly catch NTLM/LM Challenge hashes.
use auxiliary/server/capture/http_ntlm msf auxiliary(http_ntlm) > set srvhost 192.168.0.107 msf auxiliary(http_ntlm) > set srvport 80 msf auxiliary(http_ntlm) > set uripath / msf auxiliary(http_ntlm) > set johnpwfile /root/Desktop/ msf auxiliary(http_ntlm) > exploit
Now according to the above trap set for the victim, this module will capture NTLM password of victim’s system when he will open any http web site on his browser which will redirect that web site on attacker’s IP.
From given below image you can notice victim is trying to browse “IMDb.com” on his web browser but it requires authentication which is requesting for his username and password. Now if he tries to open something else let says google.com there also it will ask username and password for authentication until the victim will not submit his username and password he cannot browse anything on his web browser.
As the victim enter username and password, the attacker at background will capture NTLM hash on his system.
Great!! The attacker had captured NTMLv2 hash; now let count detail apart from the hash value that the attacker has captured.
From the given image you can see that the attacker has captured two things more:
- Username: raj
- Machine name: WIN-1GKSSJ7D2AE
Now use john the ripper to crack the ntlmv2 hash by executing given below command
From given below image you can confirm, we have successfully decoded the captured hashes with the user name as raj and password as 123.
Combining DHCP Spoofing with sniffing
DHCP spoofing: A fake DHCP server is set up by an attacker in a local network, which broadcast a large number Request message of false IP configuration to genuine Client.
Go to ettercap and click on MitM, select DHCP spoofing
Form the below image, provide the necessary information
- IP Pool – 168.0.200-210 (put an IP range to issue IP to the system connected to the network, this will work as DHCP server)
- Net-mask 255.255.0 (as per the IP Class)
- DNS Server IP 168.0.1 (as per the IP Class)
Click OK and Start sniffing
Here I have turned on the “metasploitable server” given below image shows the IP 192.168.0.202 which is from the pool of IP range we provided on ettercap DHCP.
Let us now go to the client machine and try to connect the metasploitable server with FTP (File Transfer Protocol) client as shown in the below image
Provide the hostname (IP), user name and password to connect to the FTP server.
From the given below image, we can see that, the information such as username and password for FTP is getting captured by ettercap provided by the host machine, in our case it is User:msfadmin, PASS:msfadmin
From given below image you can perceive that now we are trying to connect with metasploitable server (192.168.0.202) through telnet via port 23 using putty. it will prompt you for the user name and password, provide the necessary information.
From the above image, we can clearly see that ettercap has captured the credential information been provided by the user in our case it is User:msfadmin Pass: msfadmin for telnet service.
HTTP Password Sniffing
Let us now do the same through HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol)
From the below image, we can see DVWA service is running in our metasploitable server, through the client browser let us type 192.168.0.202/dvwa/login.php, it will prompt for username and password, let’s provide the credentials.
We could see from the below image, ettercap has once again captured the username and password been provided by the user from the browser, in our case, it is username: admin and PASS: password for HTTP service.
SMTP Password Sniffing
Lastly, let us now try this with SMTP (Simple Mail Transport Protocol) Sniffing.
The first step is to configure SMTP Server in your environment please click Here as to how we can configure an SMTP server in windows machine.
Once the Server is configured, and we have set up email clients on the target machines,
Let us open Ettercap and add both our Targets X.X.X.102 and X.X.X.104 and select ARP poisoning
Now let us send an email from Target A to Target B as shown below
Here target A: email@example.com is sender who is sending the message to target B: firstname.lastname@example.org and hence port 25 for SMTP service will get in action.
Given below image has confirmed that Aarti has received raj’s mail successfully, while at background attacker is sniffing all the traffic passes through the router.
If we now go to Ettercap console, we can clearly see that it has successfully sniffed the traffic between Target A and Target B and captured the credential of Target A (Raj) as shown in above image.
Capture Email of SMTP server with Wireshark
Go to wire shark are put the filter smtp && (eth.src == 00:0c:29:4a:47:75 || eth.dst == 00:0c:29:4a:47:75) the MAC address filter is for our kali machine, you will observe it has captured packets from both our target Machines.
It has sniff every all SMTP packets, captured both email IDs i.e. sender and receiver with message been sent to Target B which is Hello Friends today we are performing SMTP sniffing, which shows that we have been successful on our attack on the selected targets, as shown in the image below.
Throughout this article, we discussed ways and techniques that can be used to exploit the Arp protocol successfully, let us now discuss briefly around the technique to be used to detect the arp attack.
ARP Attack Detection
There are various tools available to detect the arp attack, one of the most common tools is XArp tool, which we will be using for this article.
We can run this tool in any host machine in the network to detect the arp attack, above image shows the affected systems on the network highlighted in red (X), we can disconnect these host from the network and decide upon next course of action to mitigate these risk by implementing the following controls:
- Dynamic address inspection
- DHCP snooping
- VLAN hopping prevention
Author: Krishnan Sharma is a technology professional having the passion for information security and related fields, he loves technical writing and is part of our hacking article team, he may be contacted Here