Categories

Archives

CTF Challenges

digital world.local: FALL Vulnhub Walkthrough

FALL (digitalworld.local: FALL) is a medium level machine created by Donavan for Vulnhub. This lab is appropriate for some experienced CTF players who wish to put their skills to the test in these environments. So, let’s get going and figure out where to break things down into manageable pieces.

Pentest Methodology

Network Scanning

  • nmap

Enumeration

  • Abusing HTTP
  • gobuster

Exploitation

  • Fuzzing
  • Abusing LFI
  • Enumerate id_rsa key

Privilege Escalation

  • SSH
  • Root Flag

Level: Medium

Network Scanning

To begin, netdiscover cannot be used to determine the IP address of a victim PC. When we start the machine on the screen, the machine displays its IP address.

In our scenario, the IP address of the victim PC is 192.168.1.7.

To move forward in this procedure, we are launching Nmap. We ran an aggressive scan (-A) for open port enumeration and found the following ports as show in the given image.

nmap -A 192.168.1.7

According to the results of the nmap scan, this machine is running a wide range of services.

Enumeration

First, we’ll attempt to use HTTP. Let’s look at port 80 and see if anything notable comes up. We can instantly verify this in the browser because the Apache Server is listening on port 80. There is nothing special except that we discovered a user name “qiu“.

Now, we’re going to try gobuster to see if we can locate something that will allow us to progress forward in this machine. It is a program that is used to brute-force URIs (directories and files) in websites, DNS subdomains (with wildcard support), and Virtual Hostnames on target web servers.

Read more from here

gobuster dir -u http://192.168.1.7 -w /usr/share/wordlists/dirbuster/directory-list-2.3-medium.txt -x .html,.php,.txt

Above command will enumerate all file that has .html, .php, .txt extension.

We discovered a trustworthy directory (test.php). I immediately went to the browser to examine that. As stated, when we access /test.php, and receive an alert. It claims that a GET parameter is missing. As a result, we now have only a few possibilities.

Exploitation

I was clueless therefore I was doubtful with LFI thus I use FUZZ to identify the existence of LFI by fuzzing for /etc/passwd file. With the help of the following command, I try to fuzz for the missing Get parameter.

ffuf -c -w /usr/share/seclists/Discovery/Web-Content/common.txt -u 'http://192.168.1.7/test.php?FUZZ=/etc/passwd' -fs 80

We got 200 OK for the “file” parameter that could be missing term. We use the curl command to bring up the /etc/passwd file of the remote machine.

curl http://192.168.1.7/test.php?file=/etc/passwd

We can easily see that the user name “qiu” has a user account with higher privileges, and it also has bash authorization.

It’s time to begin the process of LFI exploitation. After exploring the directory, we enumerated an ssh id_rsa key for user qiu with the help of the curl command by exploiting LFI.

curl http://192.168.1.7/test.php?file=/home/qiu/.ssh/id_rsa

Let’s try the SSH connection but first, we must save this key on our machine while granting the necessary permissions. So, let us begin the SSH login…

nano sshkey
chmod 600 sshkey
ssh -i sshkey [email protected]

After successfully logging in to SSH, we began privilege escalation.

Privilege Escalation

All we have to do now is examine bash history and find some valuable information.

cat .bash_history

We obtained the user “qiu” password “remarkablyawesome,” and we ran a sudo command to check this user’s permissions.

sudo -l

The user “qiu” was granted all of the necessary permissions to become root. We simply switch the user account and submit the password enumerated above.

Hooray!! Now that we have the root, we must navigate to the root directory in order to obtain the root flag.

sudo su
cat proof.txt

This is how we can get to the heart of the machine. It was a fantastic exercise, and it was a lot of fun to root for. It is necessary to try one in order to comprehend various scenarios.

Author: Shubham Sharma is a passionate Cybersecurity Researcher, contact LinkedIn and Twitter.

%d bloggers like this: