Understanding Redirection with Hashing and Crypto Salt (Part 2)

In the previous article we have explained the concept of redirection with basic redirection and encoded redirections; in this article, we will cover the more secured redirection using hashing and salting techniques.

In this article also we will be covering the redirection using the same php scripts with little modification within the code.

Redirection using Hash Values

On browser type http://localhost/hashing/home.php

Hover on Redirect Link pointing to redirection page (re.php). We can see that the redirection link not only contains the URL as a parameter but also the hash which means that we are not only passing the URL as a parameter but also generating the hash value using MD5/SH1/SHA512 or any of the hashing algorithm and redirection will only work if the combination of URL and its hash is correct else not.

(Shown in the figure below). This is a more secure way of redirection.

For the sake of understanding our redirection link is showing the parameters like URL and Hash but in the case or real development, we can hide them so that attacker won’t be able to judge where the page is being redirected.

When we click on Redirect Link redirection script on re.php will catch the passed URL and generate its hash value (we are using MD5 hash algorithm) and compare the generated hash value with the hash value we have sent with the request, if both the hash values match the redirection would work else it will fail.

We are using a hash calculator for generating the MD5 Value of “https://www.hackingarticles.in”.

The MD5 hash value of “https://www.hackingarticles.in” is 8258c1efb05943d059476150cb22df1d

 In the below image we are replacing the original hash value of “https://www.hackingarticles.in”   from its original value which is “8258c1efb05943d059476150cb22df1d” to any different value for example “9258c1efb05943d059476150cb22df1d” (we have replaced only first digit from 8 to 9).

The redirection has failed and the script has returned an error message. Finally, we are sending the URL along with the generated Hash Value as parameter and result is below

Redirection using Hash Values with salting

On browser type http://localhost/hashing/home.php (the page where we have our scripts)

Hover on Redirect Link pointing to redirection page (re.php). Here we can see one more additional parameter salt. As in the previous methodology we have worked with Hash values while working with salting we are introducing one more parameter salt and generating the hash value of the URL by prepending or appending the salt value in front of the URL or at the end of the URL. The salt value could be anything, it could be a combination of characters, digits, alphanumeric, special character or anything we want (In this example we are using the salt value “ignite”). By using salts we are further increasing the security for redirecting the URL.

 For the sake of understanding our redirection link is showing the parameters like URL and Hash and Salt but in the case or real development, we can hide them so that attacker won’t be able to judge where the page is being redirected.

 When we click on Redirect Link redirection script on re.php will catch the passed URL and generate its hash value (we are using Sha1 hash algorithm) by appending the salt value (ignite) in front of the URL and compare the generated hash value with the hash value we have sent with the request, if both the hash values match the redirection would work else it will fail.

in Above image we are generating the Sha1 hash value by appending the salt “ignite”  in front of the URL “https://www.hackingarticles.in” , we can use any online/offline converter in this example we are generating Sha1 hash through http://online-code-generator.com/sha1-hash-with-optional-salt.php

The sha1 hash value of the URL with salt is: 5955e7e3533a0afac6ddfee60a32e2a6731cf626

If the hash value sent is different from the original value our script will return an error. In below Image we are changing the sha1 hash value from 5955e7e3533a0afac6ddfee60a32e2a6731cf626 to 8955e7e3533a0afac6ddfee60a32e2a6731cf626 (we are replacing only first digit from 5 to 8) we will get the following result.

Finally, we are sending the URL along with the generated Hash Value as parameter and result is below

Author: Ankit Gupta, the Author, and co-founder of this website, An Ethical Hacker, Telecom Expert, Programmer, India. He Has Found his Deepest Passion To Be Around The World Of Telecom, ISP and Ethical Hacking. Contact Here

Understand Hashing in Cryptography (A Practical Approach)

Cryptography is the conversion of plain readable text into the unreadable form. In cryptography first, the data is converted into ciphertext (that is encryption) and then the ciphertext is converted back into readable form (that is decryption). Cryptography basically works on the concept of encryption and decryption. Encryption and decryption should not be confused with encoding and decoding, in which data is converted from one form to another but is not deliberately altered so as to conceal its content. Encryption is achieved through the algorithms. These algorithms are works with logic, mathematics calculations, and its complexities.

Hash Function is the most important function in Cryptography. A hash means a 1 to 1 relationship between data. This is a common data type in languages, although sometimes it’s called a dictionary. A hash algorithm is a way to take an input and always have the same output, otherwise known as a 1 to 1 function. An ideal hash function is when this same process always yields a unique output. So you can tell someone, here is a file, and here is its md5 hash. If the file has been corrupted during then the md5 hash will be a different value.

In practice, a hash function will always produce a value of the same size, for instance, md5 () it will always return 128bits no matter the size of the input. This makes a 1 to 1 relationship impossible. A cryptographic hash function takes extra precautions in making it difficult to produce 2 different inputs with the same output, this is called a collision. It also makes it difficult to reverse the function. Hash functions are used for password storage because if an attacker where to obtain the password’s hash then it forces the attacker to break the hash before he can use it to log in. To break hashes, attackers will take a word list or an English dictionary and find all of the corresponding hash values and then iterate through the list for each password looking for a match.

md5 (), sha0 and sha1 () are all vulnerable to hash collision attacks and should never be used for anything security related. Instead, any member of the sha-2 family, such as sha-256 should be used.

To calculate the Hash Value, we will use a Hash Calculator. Install Hash Calculator from –> http://www.slavasoft.com/hashcalc/

Hash function plays a major role in the hacking/forensic world because it helps us to know whether a particular file has changed or not. You can also calculate the hash value of your computer and know if anyone has made any kind of changes.

To calculate the hash value open Hash Calculator.

Now browse the file of which you want to calculate the hash value. And click on Calculate.

After clicking on calculate it will give too hash values using four different hashing algorithms i.e MD5, SHA1, RIPEMD160, CRC32. You can check other boxes too if you want to use those algorithms to calculate the hash value.

This way Hash calculator helps us to know the hash value. Now if there are any changes made in this file, the hash value will change too.

Once I calculated the hash value above I made some changes in the file and calculated the hash value again with the same method and as a result, the hash value was changed.

Now, we have two hash values. Let us compare both of these values of MD5. The value of first file is 1110808875326e25dl93e4ee096afaf1 and the value of other file is fb9d53883f302d78c978a583e8a85.

Seeing these two values of MD5 of the same file we can conclude that some changes are made. Because even the slightest difference will change the hash value.

But now the main question is how to detect this change because a file can be of 1TB too. Also, imagine that you are sending a hard disk full of important documents to someone and there is a huge possibility that someone can bribe the sender and make changes in your documents. So how can you detect these changes?

The answer is very simple –> Compare it! This tool helps us achieve our goal which is to detect the change.

Download Compare it! From —>http://www.grigsoft.com/wincmp3.htm

Open Compare it!

Click the file and a drop menu will appear. Select the compare files option.

A Dialogue box will open which will ask you to choose the files that you want to compare. Click on Browse button and select your file. And click on Open.

It will show you the changes by highlighting them with green colour and the red colour will tell the exact change as shown below:

So, in such a way you can protect your sensitive data and detect the crime done too.

Author: Yashika Dhir is a passionate Researcher and Technical Writer at Hacking Articles. She is a hacking enthusiast. contact here

Beginner Guide of Cryptography (Part 1)

Cryptography is a conversion of plain readable text into an unreadable form. In cryptography first, the data is converted into ciphertext (that is encryption) and then the ciphertext is converted back into readable form (that is decryption). Cryptography basically works on the concept of encryption and decryption. Encryption and decryption should not be confused with encoding and decoding, in which data is converted from one form to another but is not deliberately altered so as to conceal its content. Encryption is achieved through the algorithms. These algorithms are works with logic, mathematics calculations and its complexities.

Encryption: Encrypted data is referred to as ciphertext. Cyphertext is a conversion of readable text into an unreadable form. It is the most effective way to achieve data security. To read an encrypted file, you must have access to a secret key or password that enables you to decrypt it. 

Decryption: Decryption is the process of converting encrypted data back into its original form, so it can be understood. To decrypt the data one needs a secret key or password so it can be decrypted.

Encryption can be done in three ways:

  1. Symmetric
  2. Asymmetric
  3. Hash

Symmetric: Symmetric encryption’s job is to take readable data, scramble it to make it unreadable, then unscramble it again when it’s needed. It’s generally fast, and there are lots of good encryption methods to choose from.  The most important thing to remember about symmetric encryption is that both sides—the encrypter, and the decrypter—need access to the same key.

Asymmetric: Asymmetric encryption also takes readable data, scrambles it, and unscrambles it again at the other end, but there’s a twist: a different key is used for each end.  Encrypters use a public key to scramble the data, and decrypters use the matching private (secret) key on the other end to unscramble it again.

Hash: Hashing is what is actually happening when you hear about passwords being “encrypted”.  Strictly speaking, hashing is not a form of encryption, though it does use cryptography.  Hashing takes data and creates a hash out of it, a string of data with three important properties : the same data will always produce the same hash, it’s impossible to reverse it back to the original data, given knowledge of only the hash, it’s infeasible to create another string of data that will create the same hash (called a “collision” in crypto parlance). hash is to authenticate otherwise clearly-transmitted data using a shared secret (effectively, a key.) The hash is generated from the data and this secret so that only the data and the hash are visible; the shared secret is not transmitted and it thus becomes infeasible to modify either the data or the hash without such modification being detected.

Now, there are very simple methods to achieve cryptography in our day to day life so that our data sharing can be done securely.

For Symmetric encryption we can simply visit the website: www.aesencryption.net, shown below :

On this website in the first box writing your message and in the second box give your password and then click on the encrypt button on the right side.

The website will now reload itself and will provide you with the encrypted text. Send this encrypted text to the desired person and tell them the key (which, in this case, is time).

The said person, after receiving your encrypted message, can come on this website to decrypt it. He/She will simply have to copy the encrypted text and paste it on the first box and enter the key in the next box and click on the decrypt button on the right side as shown below :

After clicking on decrypt the site will reload itself and will provide you with plain text.

Hence, symmetric encryption.

For Asymmetric encryption, we can simply go to www.igolder.com/pgp/generate-key/, the following website will open

Click on generate PGP keys, after opening the website. A public and private key will be generated.

Now, copy the public key and click on PGP encrypt message option, it will redirect to the following page

Paste the public key in the first box and write your message in the second box. By clicking on Encrypt Message, you will get your message encrypted.

Now, copy this encrypted message to the desired person along with the private key which you generated in the first step. The same person can also visit this site and click on PGP decrypt message option to decrypt the message. After clicking on the said option, the following page will open:

He/She can copy the private key and encrypted message and paste it on the first and second box respectively.

At last click on Decrypt message and your message will be decrypted.

Author: Yashika Dhir is a passionate Researcher and Technical Writer at Hacking Articles. She is a hacking enthusiast. contact here

Encrypting File System (EFS) Tutorial for Beginners

Encrypting File System (EFS) is a feature of Windows that you can use to store information on your hard disk in an encrypted format. It uses sha1 algorithm for encryption/Decryption.

Encrypting a File

Suppose you want to encrypt a file Bank details. Right click on it and Select Properties then click on Advanced Settings.

Tick ‘Encrypt contents to secure data’ and Click ok. After That Click on Apply.

A dialog box will appear. Tick Encrypt the File only and Click OK to encrypt the File.

Now your file name font color will turn green which ensures File is encrypted successfully.

Now if you run this file on another system it will show an error Access is denied.

Decrypting a File

Now in order to decrypt that file on another system you need to create a certificate from the system by which you encrypted the file and then install that certificate on the system in which you want to run that file.

In order to create a certificate, go to file properties then advanced Attributes then details.

Click on Backup keys.

A dialog box will appear like this. Click on Next

Now Select “Include all certificates” and “Export all extended properties”. Click next.

Choose a password to protect your private key.

Select the path to which you want to store the key.

Click on Finish.

Now copy the certificate in the target system and execute it. A similar dialog Box will appear. Click on next until you see something like this. Enter the password you used before.

Click next and finish..Now the certificate is installed you can simply double click the file to open it